Study Finds CBD Can Help Dampen Cravings For Opioids, Potentially Adding Weapon In Fight Against Crisis

CBD Helps Dampen Cravings

KHN Morning Briefing

CBD Helps Dampen Cravings, Summaries of health policy coverage from major news organizations

CBD Helps Dampen Cravings

In a report published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, researchers find that patients treated with cannabidiol (CBD) reported lower cravings for heroin or other opioids than did patients who were either given a placebo or no treatment at all. As states and public health experts scramble to contain the drug epidemic, the findings could provide some hope.

Effects of Regulation Intensity on Marijuana Black Market After Legalization

Effects Of Regulation Intensity

Effects Of Regulation Intensity

Abstract

Effects Of Regulation Intensity, Since 2012, many states and Canada have legalized the use and sale of recreational marijuana. One of the expected benefits of the legalization is that the establishment of a legal cannabis market would eliminate the black market which has been the main form of marijuana trade for decades.

Even though legal options are available for marijuana producers and consumers, the black market is still thriving in states where recreational marijuana has been legalized. The reasons behind the persistence of the marijuana black market are complex.

One of the main arguments is that the legalized states have failed to establish a regulatory framework which effectively keeps both producers and consumers in the legal market. Instead, strict regulations and high cost of compliance have created an environment in favor of big players while driving small-scale businesses into the black market.

The current research attempts to study this issue by answering the research question of whether overregulation is pushing some marijuana businesses back to the black market or preventing them from entering the legal market.

This thesis employs a mix-method design to analyze qualitative data of news articles reporting the reasons that marijuana businesses decide to stay in the black market and a quasi-experimental time series analysis of National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data regarding marijuana offenses in Colorado and Washington between 2014 and 2017.

The qualitative analysis of news reports reveals that regulation is one of the main reasons that people stay in the illicit market. The comparison of marijuana crime trends in Colorado and Washington shows mixed findings. While marijuana offense rates in Colorado largely remained steady over the years, those in Washington increased dramatically after the implementation of more intensive regulations.

The results of this study have several policy implications for the marijuana legalization as well as implications for future research on the black-market issue.

Measuring the Criminal Justice System Impacts of Marijuana Legalization and Decriminalization Using State Data

Criminal Justice System Impacts

Criminal Justice System Impacts

Abstract

Criminal Justice System Impacts, The goal of this project was to analyze quantitative and qualitative data in 11 targeted states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, and Washington) to address three research questions:

1. what are the impacts of marijuana legalization and decriminalization on criminal justice resources in Colorado, Washington, and Oregon?;

2. what are the impacts on criminal justice resources in states that border the states (Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Utah, and Kansas) that have legalized marijuana?;

and 3. what are the impacts of marijuana legalization and decriminalization on drug trafficking through northern and southwest border states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington)?

Quantitative data from seven Statistical Analysis Centers was provided and 35 interviews with law enforcement personnel in seven states were conducted to address the three research questions. Analyses of the available data suggests that:

1. legalizing the recreational use of marijuana resulted in fewer marijuana related arrests and court cases;

2. legalizing marijuana did not have a noticeable impact on indicators in states that bordered those that legalized;

and 3. there were no noticeable indications of an increase in arrests related to transportation or trafficking offenses in states along the northern or southern borders.

Interviews with law enforcement officials identified a number of concerns about the legalization of marijuana, including the potency of marijuana products, increased marijuana use among youth, the influx of people from out-of-town or out-of-state, and increases in incidents of drugged driving.

The project identified a number of challenges associated with the availability and usefulness of marijuana-related data in the states, and the authors suggest that both the quantitative and qualitative data should be interpreted with caution given the limitations of each identified by the project.

Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Public Health Research on Cannabis

Public Health Research On Cannabis

Public Health Research On Cannabis

Public Health Research On Cannabis

Notice Number: NOT-DA-19-065

Key Dates
Release Date: August 14, 2019
First Available Due Date: October 5, 2019
Expiration Date: January 8, 2022Related Announcements

PA-19-056: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
PA-19-055: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Required)
PA-19-091: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Basic Experimental Studies with Humans Required)
PA-19-052: NIH Small Research Grant Program (Parent R03 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
PA-19-092: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Basic Experimental Studies with Humans Required)
PA-19-053: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
PA-19-054: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Clinical Trial Required)
PA-18-591, Administrative Supplements to Existing NIH Grants and Cooperative Agreements (Parent Admin Supp Clinical Trial Optional)

Issued by
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

Purpose

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is issuing this notice to encourage grant applications on the effects of changing cannabis laws and policies in the US and globally on public health.

Background

Public Health Research On Cannabis, Policies around cannabis use in the United States (and globally) are changing rapidly, and far outpacing the knowledge needed to determine and minimize the public health impacts of these changes. A growing number of states have loosened restrictions on cannabis, including those on sales and use, by passing medical marijuana laws or by making cannabis legal for adult recreational use, and in some cases, states have done both. Recognizing this widening research gap, NIDA solicited input from an Advisory Council Workgroup to identify cannabis policy research areas with the greatest urgency and potential for impact. The workgroup report can be found here: https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/nacda_cannabis_policy_research_workgroup_report_feb_2018.pdf

Examples of research areas highlighted in the report that are of interest to NIDA are included below.

Research Objectives

Areas of programmatic interest to NIDA include:

  • Develop standards for measuring cannabis (including hemp and hemp product) dose, intoxication, and impairment.
  • Enhance existing epidemiology research to study trends for cannabis use and CUD; including new products, patterns of use, and reasons for use in different populations.
  • Characterize the composition/potency of cannabis, methods of administration, cannabis extracts/concentrates, and cannabis of varying constituents (e.g. cannabinoid or terpene content), as well as how those factors impact physical and mental health.
  • Determine the physical and mental health antecedents of use, as well as outcomes of use.
  • Explore the impact of polysubstance use on health outcomes, including interactions (substitution/complementation) with alcohol, tobacco, and prescription and nonprescription opioids;
  • Examine reasons for initiation and continued use of marijuana for therapeutic purposes.
  • Investigate the effects of different patterns of cannabis use on brain development, educational attainment, and transition to work and adult roles.
  • Identify the effects of maternal cannabis consumption during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Develop effective roadside tests for cannabis impairment that can be practically deployed by law enforcement.
  • Determine the prevalence of cannabis-involved vehicular crashes and other types of injury or property damage.
  • Investigate how cannabis industry practices, including research on marketing, taxes, and prices, impact use and health outcomes (e.g. how different price points impact consumption patterns across different levels of use).
  • Determine the impact of federal, state, and local marijuana policies and their implementation on use and health outcomes.
  • Explore the heterogeneity of regulatory schemes (e.g. models for retail distribution of cannabis) to understand which combinations or components minimize harm to public health.


Application and Submission Information:

This notice applies to due dates on or after October 5, 2019 and subsequent receipt dates through January 8, 2022.

Submit applications for this initiative using one of the following funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) or any reissues of these announcement through the expiration date of this notice.

  • PA-19-056: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
  • PA-19-055: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Required)
  • PA-19-091: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Basic Experimental Studies with Humans Required)
  • PA-19-052: NIH Small Research Grant Program (Parent R03 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
  • PA-19-092: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Basic Experimental Studies with Humans Required)
  • PA-19-053: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
  • PA-19-054: NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (Parent R21 Clinical Trial Required)
  • PA-18-591, Administrative Supplements to Existing NIH Grants and Cooperative Agreements (Parent Admin Supp Clinical Trial Optional)

Competing grant applications submitted in response to PA-19-056, PA-19-055, PA-19-091, PA-19-052, PA-19-092, PA-19-053, and PA-19-054:

Applications may be submitted for due dates on or after October 5, 2019 and subsequent receipt dates through January 8, 2022.

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide and the funding opportunity announcement used for submission must be followed, with the following additions:

  • For funding consideration, applicants must include “NOT-DA-19-065” (without quotation marks) in the Agency Routing Identifier field (box 4B) of the SF424 R&R form. Applications without this information in box 4B will not be considered for this initiative.
  • Applications nonresponsive to terms of this NOSI will be not be considered for the NOSI initiative.

Non-competing administrative supplement applications submitted in response to PA-18-591:

Applications may be submitted from October 5, 2019 through the expiration date of this notice, January 8, 2022.

All instructions in the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide and PA-18-591 must be followed, with the following additions:

  • Applications are due by 5:00 PM local time of applicant organization.
  • The process for Streamlined Submissions using the eRA Commons cannot be used for this initiative.
  • For funding consideration, applicants must include “NOT-OD-19-065” (without quotation marks) in the Agency Routing Identifier field (box 4B) of the SF424 R&R form. Applications without this information in box 4B will not be considered for this initiative.
  • Applicants are strongly encouraged to notify the program contact at the Institute supporting the parent award that a request has been submitted in response to this FOA in order to facilitate efficient processing of the request.

Inquiries

Please direct all inquiries to the contacts in Section VII of the listed funding opportunity announcements with the following additions/substitutions:

Scientific/Research Contact(s)

Marsha Lopez, PhD
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Telephone: (301) 402-1846
Email: Marsha.Lopez@nih.gov

Steve Gust, PhD
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Telephone: (301) 402-1118
Email: sgust@nida.nih.gov

Heather Kimmel, PhD
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Telephone: (301) 443-6504
Email: heather.kimmel@nih.gov

Applications To Become Registered Under the Controlled Substances Act To Manufacture Marijuana To Supply Researchers in the United States

Under The Controlled Substances Act

Under The Controlled Substances Act

Under The Controlled Substances Act

AGENCY:

Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice.

ACTION:

Policy statement.

SUMMARY:

To facilitate research involving marijuana and its chemical constituents, DEA is adopting a new policy that is designed to increase the number of entities registered under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) to grow (manufacture) marijuana to supply legitimate researchers in the United States. This policy statement explains how DEA will evaluate applications for such registration consistent with the CSA and the obligations of the United States under the applicable international drug control treaty.

DATES:

August 12, 2016.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION REGARDING UNDER THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT CONTACT:

Michael J. Lewis, Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration; Mailing Address: 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, Virginia 22152; Telephone: (202) 598-6812.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

Reasons for This Policy Statement

There is growing public interest in exploring the possibility that marijuana or its chemical constituents may be used as potential treatments for certain medical conditions. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act requires that before a new drug is allowed to enter the U.S. market, it must be demonstrated through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to be both safe and effective for its intended uses. Congress long ago established this process, recognizing that it was essential to protect the health and welfare of the American people. Click the link below to read more about the application.

VA Medicinal Cannabis Research Act 2019

Medicinal Cannabis Research Act

Medicinal Cannabis Research Act

Sponsor:Sen. Tester, Jon [D-MT] (Introduced 01/17/2019)
Committees:Senate – Veterans’ Affairs

VA Medicinal Cannabis Research Act of 2019

This bill requires the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to conduct a clinical trial of the effects of medical-grade cannabis on the health outcomes of covered veterans diagnosed with chronic pain, and also those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Covered veterans are those who are enrolled in the VA patient enrollment system for hospital care and medical services.

How and why have attitudes about cannabis legalization changed so much?

Attitudes About Cannabis Legalization

Attitudes About Cannabis Legalization

Abstract

Attitudes About Cannabis Legalization, Since the late 1990s public opinion about cannabis legalization has become drastically more liberal, and some states have begun to legalize cannabis for recreational use.

Why have attitudes changed so much? Prior research has considered a few of the reasons for this change, but this is the first comprehensive and empirically-based study to consider the wide range of potential causes for how and why this happened.

We use data from the General Social Survey, National Study of Drug Use and Health, and word searches from the New York Times. We find that attitudes largely liberalized via intracohort changes.

Most Americans developed more liberal views, regardless of their race and ethnicity, gender, education, religious or political affiliation, or religious engagement.

Changes in cannabis use have had minimal effects on attitudes, and legalization of cannabis has not prompted attitude change in neighboring states.

As to root causes, evidence suggests that a decrease in religious affiliation, a decline in punitiveness, and a shift in media framing all contributed to changing attitudes.

Bill Nye on Federal Marijuana Status

Bill Nye On Federal Marijuana

Bill Nye On Federal Marijuana

Bill Nye On Federal Marijuana, Famous scientist touts that the federal government’s stance against marijuana is not science based.

Federal law’s most restricted status, otherwise known as Schedule 1 is how the U.S. government chooses to classify marijuana. Although this category is supposed to be reserved for the most dangerous drugs without any medical value, against science based reasoning the government continues to maintain marijuana’s status in this category.

“people use marijuana and marijuana extracts for all sorts of medical applications, so you’ve got to think there’s something to it”

Maintaining this status only seeks to keep roadblocks in place that prevent progress in studying the benefits and disadvantages of cannabis.

The benefits of cannabis legalization and access are now more often than not being seen in the forms of economic prosperity and medical advances not to mention the social outcomes.

In the new season of “Bill Nye Saves the World,” premiering December 29 on Netflix, the scientist is seen getting a medical cannabis recommendation and visiting a California dispensary.

“We legalized marijuana, we tax it”

Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Doses are Associated with Adult ADHD Status of Medical Cannabis Patients

ADHD And Medical Cannabis Patients

ADHD And Medical Cannabis Patients

Abstract

Objective:

ADHD And Medical Cannabis Patients, The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was to identify associations between the doses of cannabinoids and terpenes administered, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods:

Participants were adult patients licensed for medical cannabis (MC) treatment who also reported a diagnosis of ADHD by a physician.

Data on demographics, ADHD, sleep, and anxiety were collected using self-report questionnaires. Data collected on MC treatment included administration route, cultivator, cultivar name, and monthly dose. Comparison statistics were used to evaluate differences in reported parameters between low (20–30 g, n=18) and high (40–70 g, n=35) MC monthly dose and low adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS, 0–5) score (i.e. ≤3.17 score, n=30) or high ASRS score (i.e. ≥3.18 score, n=29) subgroups.

Results:

From the 59 patients that answered the questionnaire, MC chemovar could be calculated for 27 (45%) of them. The high MC monthly dose group consumed higher levels of most phyto-cannabinoids and terpenes, but that was not the case for all of the cannabis components. The high dose consumers and the ones with lower ASRS score reported a higher occurrence of stopping all ADHD medications. Moreover, there was an association between lower ASRS score subgroup and lower anxiety scores. In addition, we found an association between lower ASRS score and consumption of high doses of cannabinol (CBN), but not with ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Conclusion:

These findings reveal that the higher-dose consumption of MC components (phyto-cannabinoids and terpenes) is associated with ADHD medication reduction. In addition, high dosage of CBN was associated with a lower ASRS score. However, more studies are needed in order to fully understand if cannabis and its constituents can be used for management of ADHD.

Using recreational cannabis to treat insomnia: Evidence from over-the-counter sleep aid sales in Colorado

Recreational Cannabis In Treating Insomnia

Recreational Cannabis In Treating Insomnia

Highlights

Recreational Cannabis In Treating Insomnia.

Nearly 50% of US populations suffers from sleep disturbances; if cannabis can treat insomnia, this is clinically relevant.

Colorado county-level data show OTC sleep aid sales decline with recreational cannabis access, especially for diphenhydramine and doxylamine.

The negative association between cannabis access and sleep aid sales suggests a consumer preference for cannabis.

Abstract

This study seeks to understand whether people substitute between recreational cannabis and conventional over-the-counter (OTC) sleep medications. UPC-level grocery store scanner data in a multivariable panel regression design were used to compare the change in the monthly market share of sleep aids with varying dispensary-based recreational cannabis access (existence, sales, and count) in Colorado counties between 12/2013 and 12/2014.

We measured annually-differenced market shares for sleep aids as a portion of the overall OTC medication market, thus accounting for store-level demand shifts in OTC medication markets and seasonality, and used the monthly changes in stores’ sleep aid market share to control for short-term trends. Relative to the overall OTC medication market, sleep aid market shares were growing prior to recreational cannabis availability.

The trend reverses (a 236% decrease) with dispensary entry (−0.33 percentage points, 95% CI −0.43 to −0.24, p < 0.01) from a mean market share growth of 0.14 ± 0.97. The magnitude of the market share decline increases as more dispensaries enter a county and with higher county-level cannabis sales.

The negative associations are driven by diphenhydramine- and doxylamine-based sleep aids rather than herbal sleep aids and melatonin. These findings support survey evidence that many individuals use cannabis to treat insomnia, although sleep disturbances are not a specific qualifying condition under any U.S. state-level medical cannabis law.

Investigations designed to measure the relative effectiveness and side effect profiles of conventional OTC sleep aids and cannabis-based products are urgently needed to improve treatment of sleep disturbances while minimizing potentially serious negative side effects.